Thursday, September 26, 2019

Evaluating and reviewing current technologies within genetics and Essay

Evaluating and reviewing current technologies within genetics and biotechnology - Essay Example Some endangered species may recover on the brink of extinction, while others will never recover and may be lost forever. According to Neglia (2011), paleontologists estimate that 90 percent of flora and fauna that ever existed have gone extinct. Biotechnology scientists have embarked on extensive use of biotechnology to breed and conserve the endangered species. Biotechnology constitutes techniques that use substances from living organisms to make modified products or develop microorganisms for specific purposes (Gonzalez-Benito & Martin, 2011). Most of the biotechnologies have already been adopted while others are being developed. These biotechnologies include embryo-transfer, artificial insemination, multiple ovulation, ova-pick-up, In-vitro fertilization, embryo splitting, sperm sexing and cloning. Embryo-transfer Embryo transfer is a step in the process of assisted reproduction where embryos are placed in the uterus of a female with the intention of establishing pregnancy (Thongp hakdee et al, 2011). Biotechnologists have identified this procedure to be one of the best technologies in protecting species extinction. The primary demerit of embryo transfer is that it is not economically feasible in small-scale application; however, embryo transfer greatly contributes to genetic improvement in local breeds and restoration of endangered species (Klotzko, 2006). Embryo transfer is advantageous since it affords the possibility of producing a variety of progeny from a female species. This means that one female can be enhanced through biotechnology to produce several offsprings, just as male sperms can be used to fertilize several ova in Artificial Insemination. Biotechnologists, for example, have succeeded in increasing the lifetime productivity of Brown Pelican, Cheetah, Desert Tortoise, and Cockatoo from between six and ten offs springs to twenty-five (Iguchi & Kitano, 2008). Increased numbers of calves ensure that these species are not endangered and protect them from extinction (Hosseini, Fazilati, Moulavi, Foruzanfar, Hajian, Abedi, Nasiri, Kaveh, Shahverdi, Hemami & Nasr-esfahani, 2009). Another advantage of embryo transfer is that genetically outstanding animals have the potential for breeding program and their male young ones are usually selected for use in Artificial Insemination (Field, 2012). These male offsprings have excellent adaptive features that enable them to withstand harsh conditions in diverse environments, thus protecting endangered animals from possible extinction. Scientists can enhance the rate of genetic change with specially designed breeding schemes. This increases the chances of maximizing on the advantages of increased intensity of female selections and possible increase in turnover of generations (Verma, Kumar, Kumar & Chand, 2012). Increased generations turnover is the objective of genetic biotechnologists in their struggle to achieve protection of endangered species from possible extinction. Ethical considerati ons concerning embryo transfer include consent of donors and recipients, avoidance to mix gametes or embryos from different sources, and meeting the settlement of donor expenses. Artificial Insemination Artificial insemination involves deliberate introduction of semen into a female oviduct for the purpose of fertilization by means other than copulation (Araujo, Ginther, Ferreira, Palha?o, Beg & Wiltbank, 2009). The male

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